SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY – PLANT
A. Photosynthesis: Light harvesting complexes; mechanisms of electron transport;
photoprotective mechanisms; CO2 fixation-C3, C4 and CAM pathways.
B. Respiration and photorespiration: Citric acid cycle; plant mitochondrial electron
transport and ATP synthesis; alternate oxidase; photorespiratory pathway.
C. Nitrogen metabolism: Nitrate and ammonium assimilation; amino acid
D. Plant hormones: Biosynthesis, storage, breakdown and transport; physiological
effects and mechanisms of action.
E. Sensory photobiology: Structure, function and mechanisms of action of
phytochromes, cryptochromes and phototropins; stomatal movement;
photoperiodism and biological clocks.
F. Solute transport and photoassimilate translocation: Uptake, transport and
translocation of water, ions, solutes and macromolecules from soil, through cells,
across membranes, through xylem and phloem; transpiration; mechanisms of
loading and unloading of photoassimilates.
G. Secondary metabolites – Biosynthesis of terpenes, phenols and nitrogenous
compounds and their roles.
H. Stress physiology: Responses of plants to biotic (pathogen and insects) and
abiotic (water, temperature and salt) stresses; mechanisms of resistance to biotic
stress and tolerance to abiotic stress
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