A. The Environment: Physical environment; biotic environment; biotic and abiotic
B. Habitat and niche: Concept of habitat and niche; niche width and overlap;
fundamental and realized niche; resource partitioning; character displacement.
C. Population ecology: Characteristics of a population; population growth curves;
population regulation; life history strategies (r and K selection); concept of
metapopulation – demes and dispersal, interdemic extinctions, age structured
D. Species interactions: Types of interactions, interspecific competition, herbivory,
carnivory, pollination, symbiosis.
E. Community ecology: Nature of communities; community structure and attributes;
levels of species diversity and its measurement; edges and ecotones.
F. Ecological succession: Types; mechanisms; changes involved in succession;
concept of climax.
G. Ecosystem: Structure and function; energy flow and mineral cycling (CNP);
primary production and decomposition; structure and function of some Indian
ecosystems: terrestrial (forest, grassland) and aquatic (fresh water, marine,
H. Biogeography: Major terrestrial biomes; theory of island biogeography;
biogeographical zones of India.
I. Applied ecology: Environmental pollution; global environmental change;
biodiversity-status, monitoring and documentation; major drivers of biodiversity
change; biodiversity management approaches
J. Conservation biology: Principles of conservation, major approaches to
management, Indian case studies on conservation/management strategy (Project
Tiger, Biosphere reserves).
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