A. The Environment: Physical environment; biotic environment; biotic and abiotic ninteractions.
B. Habitat and niche: Concept of habitat and niche; niche width and overlap; fundamental and realized niche; resource partitioning; character displacement.
C. Population ecology: Characteristics of a population; population growth curves; population regulation; life history strategies (r and K selection); concept of
metapopulation – demes and dispersal, interdemic extinctions, age structured populations.
D. Species interactions: Types of interactions, interspecific competition, herbivory, carnivory, pollination, symbiosis.
E. Community ecology: Nature of communities; community structure and attributes; levels of species diversity and its measurement; edges and ecotones.
F. Ecological succession: Types; mechanisms; changes involved in succession; the concept of climax.
G. Ecosystem: Structure and function; energy flow and mineral cycling (CNP); primary production and decomposition; structure and function of some Indian
ecosystems: terrestrial (forest, grassland) and aquatic (fresh water, marine, neustarine).
H. Biogeography: Major terrestrial biomes; theory of island biogeography; biogeographical zones of India.
I. Applied ecology: Environmental pollution; global environmental change; biodiversity-status, monitoring, and documentation; major drivers of biodiversity
change; biodiversity management approaches
J. Conservation biology: Principles of conservation, major approaches to management, Indian case studies on conservation/management strategy (Project
Tiger, Biosphere reserves).